Thursday, September 12, 2013

کاش دنیای کوچک من هم خلاصه می شد به «تغییر رژیم ایران به هر قیمت و به هر وسیله»
می بینی ... باورنکردنی است اما دنیاهای کوچکتر از من هم هست.

از واقعگرایی باید ترسید در اتقلابی گری. از شعارهایی که اندازه ی امکانات این جهانِ نابرابر و تاعادلانه اند ...
شاید من ترجیح می دهم شعارهای بزرگ را ..عشق های بزرگ را ... تا اعمال کوچک ...
همینه که عاشق کارل مارکس هستم

هرچند اکتویستهای امروزه وقتی می شوند که «کارگران سراسر جهان متحد شوید!» به ریشت می خندند که "حالا بگذار به کمک دولت امریکا دولت ایران را عوض کنیم .. کو کارگر!!"

تگ: فقر در افریقا - مجاهدین خلق - دولت اسراییل - ارتش امریکا - صدام - جنگهای داخلی - تحریم کوبا برای نیم قرن - فلسطین - حقوق بشر با فشن سازمان ملل - جی هشت - African War Lords - کمپانی نفت بی پی - مالکوم ایکس - اسکندر مک کی

Given the great geographic diversity of Africa in terms of natural resources, climate, vegetation, topography, and precipitation, there was no uniform model that the colonial powers used to raise revenue throughout Africa. Just as economic activity in the early 20th century varied throughout Europe and in the United States, so too, economic activity in Africa was diverse. Within this diversity, economic historians of Africa have identified five modes of economic activity and revenue generation in colonial Africa

Mineral exploitation. Africa is a continent rich in mineral resources. In colonies where there were large deposits of minerals, colonial governments encouraged the exploitation of the minerals. Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and the Belgian Congo (Congo) are examples of colonies whose economies were dominated by copper production. In these colonies, colonial governments initiated policies that forced some African farmers to leave their homes to become mine workers.

Large scale agricultural production. In colonies in East and Southern Africa that had climates attractive to European settlers, the primary colonial economic activity and revenue generation was large scale farms owned by Europeans. Examples include Angola (coffee), Kenya (coffee, tea), and Southern Rhodesia/Zimbabwe (tobacco, beef). In this system, European settler farmers needed land and labor. To meet these needs, the colonial governments instituted unpopular policies that removed good farm land from the local population and forced some men to work as laborers on European controlled farms.

Small scale agricultural production. Most African colonies had neither large deposits of minerals, nor the environment to encourage European settlement. In these colonies, the colonial governments actively encouraged farmers to grow special cash crops that would be exported to raise revenues. Cash crops included food crops such as groundnuts/peanuts (Senegal, Nigeria), coffee (Tanganyika, Rwanda, Uganda), cocoa (Ghana, Togo, Cote D'Ivoire) and non-food crops, such as cotton (Mali, Niger, Sudan) and tobacco (Malawi).

Supply of Labor. Parts of some African colonies were poor in natural resources. In these situations, the colonial regimes instituted policies that strongly encouraged able bodied men to leave their homes and migrate either to distant areas within the same colony or to neighboring colonies where they worked in mines or on large farms. Mine owners and commercial farmers paid a recruitment fee to the colonial government of the worker's home country. For example, in Southern Africa the colonies of Bechuanaland (Botswana), Basotholand (Lesotho) , Swaziland, and parts of Mozambique and Malawi became labor reservoirs for the mines and large farms of Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and South Africa.

Mixed Economies. Most colonial economies in Africa are called mono-economies by economists. This indicates that the colonial economies were dependent on mining, settler agriculture, or the small scale production of a single cash crop. There were a few exceptions to this trend. By the end of colonialism in South Africa (1994), the country had a very vibrant and diversified economy boasting mineral, agricultural, and manufacturing industries, and an advanced commerce sector. Another example of a mixed economy is Nigeria. In the 1950s, the last decade before independence, the discovery of large reserve of petroleum helped diversify an agriculturally based economy.

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